Wireless the soil. The farmers can easily operate


Wireless Network Based Automatic
Irrigation System


1, Ankit Kumar Verma2, V.Akhil3, Amrita

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of Computer Science and Engineering


KLEF, Vaddeswaram, Guntur, India [email protected]@gmail.com2 [email protected]@gmail.com4


ABSTRACT- – The Internet of things
generally as IoT is a concept of sharing the network between different network
objects through internet connectivity. The main objective of this project is to
help the agriculturists during the irrigation process. IoT plays a major role
in the grazing fields. The Smart irrigation system minimizes the wastage of
water and helps farmers for successful usage of the water and besides the crop
development. In the proposed paper we are describing an efficient system of
irrigation to minimize the consumption of water in the. This in turn grants a
remote control mechanism to monitor the process of irrigation. This irrigation
process is automated only if the moisture


& Temperature levels of the
field falls below the reference value. The notifications that are retrieved by
the sensor are sent to farmers mobile at a given period of time. The farmers
can get SMS about the condition of the soil (whether soil is dry or wet) based
the dryness of the soil. The farmers can easily operate the motor and can
easily monitor all the operation in the fields. This intelligent Irrigation
system’s efficiency is greater than 90% when compared with traditional method.
Hence the designed
system will provide the complete readings of the content of humidity in the
soil and the timely records the temperature as well. This recorded data helps the farmers to inspect the proper functioning
of the system and to supply the water into the field in the proper proportions.


Keywords- Soil
Moisture, Temperature, Humidity, sensors, API, Internet of



As India being an agricultural country and many
people depend exclusively on agriculture, it is absolutely important to
increase production of crop. Now it’s the time to get the rapid improvement of
highly specialized greenhouse vegetables in the food production mechanism as
the demand of food has been increasing. This method provides a major benefit
and ease of production for the countries like India, where the major part of
the economy is based on the irrigation. The above method gives maximum profit
and also saves time and human effort. The climate conditions do not give much
impact as the moisture level of the soil can be adjusted. The objective of this
work is to control the flow of water to the fields through the mobile phone.
These entire processes can be implemented using microcontrollers
& sensors. The moisture sensor is used to detect the moisture in the soil.
Those sensors are connected to the microcontrollers which are ARM-based and are
also helpful in the data processing. ARM processors are
widely used in the many kinds of electronic devices. As ARM being a RISC
processor (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) it needs only fewer instructions
while compared to other processors.. The smaller size of ARM processors is very
effective in terms of power consumption and also reduces instruction complexity
and increases the performance.
The primary goal of this project is to send a short
messaging service (SMS) for farmers as regards the irrigation of divergent
lands for on and off conditions. This system further supports the mineral
deposit management decision which helps to determine the execution time of the process. Automated irrigation system contains an
application which is automated with a devices present in the soil, and does not
involve manual effort. This expected system helps to control and, therefore, to
minimize the workload of the farmer by irrigating the ground respecting water
requirements. We added sensors to monitor humidity, temperature and content of
moisture in the soil. As part of this system, we can apply water-soluble
fertilizers along with drip irrigation. Therefore the proposed system also
reduces the use of water and fertilizers, since it applies fertilizers and
water directly to the root area, which in turn saves the usage of fertilizers
and water significantly.






primary purpose of this work is to minimize the problems and disadvantages
faced by all farmers in the agriculture sectors. There have been multiple
problems that cause soil fertility and crop productivity to decrease. Another
important problem faced by the farmers during irrigation is the availability of
water for irrigation. In India there are many regions where sufficient amount
of water is not available for the farmers during the cultivation of crop. This
causes farmers to stop cultivation. Because of these issues, most the farmers
are committing suicide. As there is huge increase in the population in every
region of the country, probably there will be huge demand of food that is
proportional to the agriculture. Now we can strengthen capital based on the
theory that the “productivity of existing land does not decrease”. The CSWI
(crop water stress index) was existed everywhere before the past three decades.
To tell us when to irrigate with drip irrigation CSWI was packaged with
surrounding air temperatures, climatic pressure and infrared temperature
measurements values.

Different types of communication mechanisms have been implemented to
provide the communication between the elements in the network and network
itself. Zigbee, WI-FI, Bluetooth, RF are the existing Communication
technologies that are used in the sensor network. RF technology is chosen
rather than other technologies because it provides the low cost and lower energy
consumption. The smart internet-based irrigation program is the solution to all
the problems mentioned above.






There is an in-numerous amount of analyses and development in the
grazing path and it is growing together at great speed. Possible irrigation
becomes a space for professional analysis within the IoT. In the proposed
system we are focusing specifically on the problem in the field of cultivation
The problems includes controlling the amount of water supplied to the crop, monitoring
soil moisture and soil pH value. Here, we are also considering the fertility of
the soil.


We can implement the soil moisture device within the soil to notice the
humidity inside the ground. But as a primary measure we should always have a
lot of information on the types of soil and also the amount of water required
for this. With this in mind, we will induce these sensors. Nowadays, the most
appropriate and the better method to irrigate the field are to use drip
irrigation. The above method is extremely convenient as it reduces water waste
and increases soil fertility. Another major problem faced during the irrigation
is soil erosion caused due to due to the traditional approach; there are many
possibilities for soil erosion. Another appropriate parameter that will be
projected for irrigation is the evapotranspiration rate of the plant. Shortened
as ET, evaptranspiration, is the base transpiration speed of the plant that
believes in humidity, temperature, plant density,wind,speed,etc..



The proposed system- “crop monitoring in wireless
sensor networks” is useful for agricultural workers to maintain accuracy in
agriculture. The application helps to control the entire company in a remote
location via IOT. The application working in the sensor network consists of
wide verity of nodes. The sensors nodes are fixed either at the root of the
crop or inside the soil for varied purposes like collecting the values of the
ambient and soil parameters. These parameters include light, humidity, soil
moisture and temperature. The application that monitors crop contains two
sensors:  for example an image sensor and
a compiler of environmental parameters. These sensors get information on the
crop, soil condition, extract the readings of recorded soil moistures etc. and
all this data is copied to the cloud storage connected to the database through wireless transmission. This information is stored in the primary
database and then transferred to the Internet which is then received by the
users. All the processing is done at the server side only. The Internet
application is configured to analyze the received data and to check the
humidity and temperature threshold. The process of decision making is done on
the side server for automatic irrigation of the rig. If the recorded soil
moisture is less than a specific threshold, the motor will be switched ON and
if the threshold increases, the motor switches OFF. This approach can also be
used in greenhouses where light intensity can be controlled and automated. The
complete design of the system is shown in Fig. 1. In the given diagram we can
clearly seen how the components of the system is interconnected to each other
through wireless connection. All the required sensors are established and
connected with the Arduino Microcontroller. It is very important to maintain
the proper security measures to the Databases which holds the record of the all
the data such as the temperature, soil moisture and also the water level which are later given to the user through the SMS. There should be
some Data Processing and Decision Making in the Databases and also automation
in irrigation.

































The work profile is implementing an automatic
irrigation system together with the detection of soil moisture using soil
moisture sensor. The function of the entire model is as follows: The soil’s
moisture is measured with the help of the soil moisture sensor which is
interposed inside the soil. The soil moisture device is useful for measuring
soil conduction. As we all know, wet soil can have a larger conduction of dry
soil, the comparator is it integrated in it. The voltage generated by the teeth
and also the voltage of the threshold zone unit is compared. If the
comparator’s output is high, then we need to consider that the ground
conditions are dry. The sensors send all its data to the microcontroller
through which the sensors are connected.


purpose of the microcontroller is to monitor the data received by the sensors
(output of sensors) without interruption. If the amount of moisture recorded on
the ground is greater than the edge, the microcontroller displays a message
that mentions the constant data and the motor also switches off. Once the
output obtained from the soil moisture device is recorded bit high, then it
ends up by displaying the message as soil moisture is a smaller amount.
Therefore, it shows the corresponding knowledge and also the output of the
microcontroller in the alphanumeric screen, which is connected to the bottom of
the semiconductor unit. When the semiconductor unit is turned on, it can be
promoted in such a way that the relay coil induces power and starts the motor.
The semiconductor diode is activated to serve as an associated indicator. Every
soil has different thresholds of soil moisture. Since the sensor continuously
detects the soil moisture the motor is automatically turned on/off when the
threshold is low or high. This system is also designed to avoid the risk
occurring to the plants when the soil is not getting the corresponding
threshold of moisture and if the soil is being wet frequently.






























Block diagram of Irrigation control system




5.1 GSM module:


GSM/GPRS Modules are most popularly used in embedded systems
as communication module .The GSM module is a device which is used in many
of the IoT application. It is like a modem which works on the sim card and only
works after taking the subscription from that particular mobile operator.  This Module provides the communication between a
microcontroller and itself.
















Fig.4-GSM module

  Fig.2 Wireless Sensor Unit


5.2 Humidity / Soil moisture sensor

The Soil Moisture Sensor’s purpose is to measure the
content of water in the soil. This sensor serves widely in the sectors like
Horticulture, Agricultural sciences, Biology and botany. This sensor regains its
strength through capacitance in order to measure the content of water present
in the soil. The farmer simply arranges this sensor in the soil. Once
the sensor starts functioning it returns the volume of water present in that
respective soil in the units of percentage. In both large and small scale modeling
of agriculture, the working of the system depends on content of moisture in the
soil. Crops always depend on the water moisture available near the roots rather
than the precipitation occurrence. We use soil moisture sensor to accomplish
the purpose of getting moisture information which is the key to the system. The
Soil moisture sensor has two terminals which can be used to pass electrons
using soil moisture as the medium. The moisture in the soil is determined by
the ratio of the electrons and accordingly the motor is turned ON and OFF for
the irrigation.











Fig.5-Soil Moisture sensor






5.3 ZigBee Module:


In this current communication world, there are many high
speed data communication standards available, but none of them were able to
meet the communication standards of sensors and control devices.
The communication standards which are at high data rate needs lower latency and
low level of energy even at low-bandwidths.




in-order to overcome the difficulties faces due to communication standards that
are of high data rate we used the Zigbee technology in this system. Zigbee
technology consumes low power and is excellent in characteristics and also this
serves as a key point to use Zigbee technology in most of the embedded systems. Zigbee Module comes under the
802.11 standards. The range in which the Zigbee module is operated lies in the
range of 2.4GHz frequency bandwidth. Zigbee module can also be used for its one
good property that is it has the power saving mechanism. It can be used for
all the different classes of devices. Various transmission operations like
broadcast can be done by using this and the standard topology used is multiple
star topologies.






















Fig.6. ZigBee Module





5.4  Motor:


Motor is
used to indicate the on/off state of pump when soil is wet/dry. It is
controlled by microcontroller as programmed.




 5.5  LCD


 This is the first interfacing example for the
Parallel Port. It is used to display the current statistic on the screen. 





5.6  Power Supply:


supply of 12V is used for running this hardware system.  Reference Voltage:It is the ideal defined





the manual effort for closing or opening valves time-to-time
system adapts the new technologies and also facilitates the advanced
irrigation system that reduces complex manual effort
system can be operated at all the time to reduce the wastage of water.

system optimizes the consumption of energy by starting and stopping the
irrigation process accordingly.


system is absolutely effective in power consumption & the component used in
the hardware. This model is more helpful in minimizing the usage of water in
the fields so that there is an availability of water every time for other
purposes like electricity generation, our daily needs etc. By implementing this
system in the countries which are rich in agricultural domain shows the major
benefit.  GSM technology helps user to
control the motor remotely from any place within the range of the used
components by simply sending SMS. This system mainly reduces the work of farmer
since lot of manual work is being done by them in the farms now-a-days. Thus
this model will give lots of relief to the farmers therefore it can reduce the
effort of humans. Since the model is eco-friendly and it has various
characteristics such as: The farmer can use this automatic system or he can
operate the facilities manually by switching between the two modes.. Since
there are different methods for each agriculture field all over the India therefore
the system should be able to do the same work in everywhere. Since this model
is convenient for all types of irrigation & to all climatic conditions.




This automatic
irrigation system is proposed to introduce the technology of embedded systems
into the agricultural sector. The designed system provides the readings of
content of humidity present in the soil and also records the atmosphere’s
temperature. This system reduces the manual effort done by the farmers and
makes the farmers work easy. It overrides continues monitoring of irrigation by
the farmer with the automatic irrigation process. This makes the farmers to
save effort, time and also produces more crops. As a result this system
increases the economic condition of the farmers and gives comparatively more






Our work in the future is to improve the topology
scheme to make all the nodes communicate with each other, as well as to improve
the wireless sensors technologies in the domain of communication through a more
efficient software and hardware design. In particular it is an intelligent
design of controlling the irrigation system. It is mainly based on wireless
networks of sensors and takes the real time humidity measures as the input.
Furthermore, the software architecture can be designed and implemented the
design and implementation for the intelligent monitoring and controlling
system. This requires infinite improvements to be met with the diverse needs of
the real world. The project can be extended to greenhouses monitoring of the
temperature and making the system work automatically to modify the changes in
the temperature. This all principles can be extended to create a fully
automated agricultural area joining this framework with downpour water
collecting an immense quantity of water Holdings could an opportunity with make

By implementing this result, we can
improve the traditional form of the crop irrigation program in various regions
of India and provide an efficient way to grow crops hence reducing suicide
count of farmers.






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