Summary and especially males, have the highest risk

Summary

In
Australia, young drivers aged 17–24 years, and especially males, have the
highest risk of being involved in a deadly crash. Investigate of young drivers’
beliefs allows for a greater understanding of their relationship in risky
behaviors, for example, a speeding, beliefs are related to intentions, the
antecedent to behavior. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to
conceptualize beliefs using a scenario-based survey distributed to licensed
drivers (N = 398). The survey measured individual’s beliefs and intentions to
speed in a specific situation. Consistent with a TPB-based approach, the
beliefs of those with low intentions to speed were compared with the beliefs of
those with high intentions with such evaluations conducted separately for men
and women. Overall, significant differences in the beliefs held by low and high
intenders and for both women and men were found. Specifically, for women, it
was found that high intenders were significantly more likely to identify
advantages of speeding, less likely to identify disadvantages, and more likely
to be encouraged to speed on aware and improperly signed roads than women low
intenders. Women, however, did not differ in their opinions of support from
friends, with all women reporting some level of disapproval from most friends
and all women reporting approval to speed from their male friends. The results
for men shown that high intenders were significantly more likely to speed on
aware and improperly signed roads as well as having greater opinions of support
from all friends, except those friends with whom they worked. Low and high
intending men did not differ in their opinions of the advantages and
disadvantages of speeding, with the exception of feelings of excitement whereby
high intenders reported speeding to be more exciting than low intenders. The
findings are discussed in terms of how they may directly inform the content of
mass media and public education campaigns aimed at encouraging young drivers to
slow down.

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Literature
review

The Kingdom
ranked second in the Arab world after Libya and ranked 23rd in the world in
terms of increasing road death rates by 27.4 per cent in the World
Health Organization’s 2015 report.6 As an average for 17 Saudi Middle
Eastern occupants’ dies on the country’s streets each day, a report card Toward
the Kingdom’s general directorate of movement needs to be uncovered. This news
goes following the planet wellbeing association discovered Saudi Arabia on need
the world’s most elevated amount from maintaining deaths from way accidents,
which Right away make up the country’s vital reason for death for grown-up guys
age-old 16 to 36. 4 Traffic
accidents in Riyadh in 2015 was 138974 persons (33.78%) 5 In this study found Road traffic injuries are the most
cause of loss of disability-adjusted life years for males and females of all
ages in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We surveyed 5,235 Saudi men aged 15 years
or older. Results among Saudi males, 71.7% reported having had a driver’s
license, but more than 43% of unlicensed males drove a vehicle. This hazard
decreased among the more educated, current smokers, and those who are
physically active.?Up to 94.9% and 98.5% of respondents reported not wearing a seat belt in
the front, and the back-passenger seats, respectively. This study calls for
aggressive monitoring and enforcement of traffic laws. 1 in this study they
observe drivers in Riyadh. However, instead of improving safety, driving
through roundabouts in Riyadh can be a risky experience as many drivers do not
follow regulations. Unfortunately, no official statistics exist on accidents or
violations at roundabouts and no studies have been done to measure this
problem. Results revealed that the percentage of drivers rupturing at least one
traffic regulation is approximately 90% of all drivers driving through these rotors,
with leaving without flashing and entering the rotors without giving way is the
most frequent violation types. Survey results from 384 respondents showed that
there is a lack of information among most drivers on roundabout driving
regulations and that driver training and licensing process does not include
enough information related to this matter. Finally, practical suggestions as
for how to tackle this issue in terms of education, training and policing are
given. 2 Drivers who are young, female, those with lower levels of education
or lower incomes understand the signs significantly worse than drivers who are
older, male, with higher levels of education or higher incomes. 3

Intervention/program proposal

purpose of this program to educate
people about dangers of speed driving and prevent injuries during the driving.
Target populations are all young males and females age 17-24 years drive a car
in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh) similar to original program, I chose this population they
are used to speed and drift. it’s the most cause of mortality among young Saudi
men. Driving in Saudi Arabia is exciting for some and frustrating for others.
Also, they need entertainment, adventure and excitement by enforce them to
follow role and regulation.

Driver Intervention Program

The program is session based by
experts in this field. The session takes from 1-2 hours and is usually held 2
days per week for one month. People will be included in these sessions who were
caught by the police for high speed. The participants who drove at high speed
are punished by taken his/her license and 3000 riyals penalty. He can’t renew
his license car unless he attended program.

1- Who must attend the Program?

Drivers aged 17-24 years who have
broken the conditions of their Saudi Arabia Riyadh Learner’s Provisional
License and has been subsequently disqualified from driving. The conditions
state that drivers must not: exceeding the speed limit by more than 20 km/h or
drive without License on the vehicle. Moreover, drivers must carry their
license while driving.  A maximum speed
limit of Depend on the street o provisional drivers. Even if a driver
successfully appeals against their punishment of license disqualification, they
must still attend the program.

2- Program plan 

The program involves interactive
small group discussions led by two organizers. These have been recruited from a
wide variety of fields and are not necessarily road safety specialists. They
include people with a permanent disability as a result of a crash, others with
an interest in road safety, and police officers. The maximum number of
offending drivers attending each session is restricted to 12. During the
majority of the session, the group is divided into two smaller groups so that
each organizer has no more than 6 participants in a group. Rather than having
authority figures lecture young drivers on road safety, the strategy behind
this program is for young drivers to find their own need for attitudinal or
behavioral changes and draw their own conclusions as to how they might change.
It is believed that the process of placing young driver decisions under
personal control will make them more motivated for attitudinal or behavioral
change. This strategy is also intended to enhance the young driver
self-efficacy, that is, to perceive they have the opportunity and resources to
perform the behavior. This perception is thought to facilitate behavioral
change. In order to achieve these intended outcomes, the organizer’s role is to
encourage participants to express their views and discuss road safety issues in
a ‘friendly, supportive and non-threatening environment’. Organizers are
directed to guide debate on the issues within the structured program but not
impose their own beliefs and values or patronize participants. Participants are
encouraged to conceptualize issues through their own experiences and frame of
reference so that they question their own driving behavior and consider the
risk and consequences of crashing. To encourage open discussion and debate,
participants are reassured that all conversations within the program remain
confidential to the group present.

3- Program content

The main aim of this program is to
reduce young driver crash involvement by challenging young drivers to think
about the potential risk and consequences of crashes and question their own
sense of strength. I chose the Social Cognitive Theory for this
program.

1.    
Reciprocal
determinism: Encourage participants to express
their views and discuss road safety issues in a ‘friendly, supportive and
non-threatening environment’. Organizers are directed to guide debate on the
issues within the structured program but not impose their own beliefs and
values or support participants.

2.    
Self-efficacy: Demonstrate that the issues explored including the
situation of speeding in which the behaviour is perceived to be safe and,
instead, it is dangerous; the influence of peers; and the potential strategies
to avoid engaging in that behaviour

3.    
 Expectations:
Crash Damages Drivers must be aware about the crash consequences and drive
carefully. They have to think about their family and personal loss as well.

4.    
Observational
learning: role model as a famous
charismatic character has the same passion for speed and youth look up to him
as a person with talent and value.

5.    
 Incentive Motivation: As kind of motivation and support, we may embrace those
people who have these type of passion, drive talent and move their attention to
practice it. Then to improve their skills in a safe and equipped place as Reem
& Dirab Racetrack. I believe if we take it as a serious business and invest
in those talents, one day we may come out with a number of champions rally
drivers.

6.    
Self-regulation: Prior to the initiation of the Driver Intervention
Program session, participants are asked to rate their skill as a driver. In the
final section of the program, the results from the self-assessment of driving
ability are discussed, while reinforcing that young drivers are not secure to
crash involvement.

The strategy for this program is
not to lecture young drivers but to encourage them to voluntarily change their
attitudes or behaviors. “It is not the role of the organizer to describe right
from wrong or appropriate from inappropriate. Likewise, issues relating
directly to road safety initiatives and programs should be treated in a neutral
manner. Remember, the aim of the program is to encourage young drivers to confront
the potential reality and consequences of the crash and to have them question
their own risk-taking and sense of strength.”

 Evaluate the program:

I follow the participants for one
year with those responsible for violations (Saher system) if he committed more
than one violation in a year that is punishable by a financial fine, but if he
doesn’t commit an offense he will be rewarded.