Extremism is demonstrated by terrorist groups such as

Extremism Bethan Taylor 11KT What does extremism mean? Extremism is defined in the Longman Dictionary as “opinions, ideas, and actions, especially political or religious ones, that most people think are unreasonable and unacceptable.” In addition to extremely radical ideology, I have discovered the term can include unhinged violence and extremely repressive societies. What is an example of positive extremism? Non-violent extremism Non-violent extremism is not accompanied by violence and brutality but is extremism in the same terms as the definition I mentioned before. Rosa Parks Rosa Parks was fined $14 as she refused to give her seat to a white commuter on a bus in December 1955. Parks had breached the Bus Segregation Ordinance. After Parks was arrested, she was fingerprinted and jailed but remained courageous. She proved that extremism does not always include violent activities intended to create a political statement as she peacefully made it possible in years to come for African-Americans to sit where they wanted on public transport. Martin Luther King, Jr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was also a part of the Montgomery bus boycott, proposed the day after Parks refused to give up her seat. He lead the Montgomery Improvement Association and said black passengers should be treated with courtesy. Leaflets were made calling for a boycott of Montgomery buses in 1955. Rather than using violent means to get their message across, they urged people to not ride the bus on 5th December in these leaflets which demonstrates non-violent extremism. Newspaper headlines What is an example of negative extremism? Violent extremism Violent extremism has been defined by the FBI as “encouraging, condoning, justifying, or supporting the commission of a violent act to achieve political, ideological, religious, social, or economic goals.” Violent extremism seeks change through fear and intimidation unlike the peaceful means of non-violent extremism. Violent extremism is demonstrated by terrorist groups such as the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, Boko Haram, al-Shabaab, and al-Qaeda and includes forms of politically motivated and communal violence. English Defence League (EDL) The EDL is a far-right street protest movement against Sharia law and Islamism. Many members have been sentenced for protest violence and missiles have been thrown at police at their marches. The EDL often clashes with rival groups at their demonstrations and they have been accused of being Islamophobes who are racist. This group displays violent extremism as protestors carelessly injure people so there is always high police presence. Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) ISIS aims to create a caliphate and began by splitting from al-Qaeda. The terrorist militant group is infamous for its attacks all over the world as they continue to claim responsibility for brutal killings and destruction of landmarks. Voiced by Anjem Choudary in the UK, ISIS continues to fight for strict enforcement of Sharia Law and launch brutal attacks. The most recent attacks include the Barcelona Attack, the Quetta suicide bombing and London Bridge attack. Newspaper headlines PESTLE analysis Political Some people and groups hold beliefs that greatly diverge from society’s norm. Extremism can determine the policies discussed in the House of Commons and extremist organisations stand in local electrons due to freedom of speech and the law. Left-wing beliefs revolve around equality, everyone in society helping one another, taxation, the national health service and job seeker’s allowance. Right-wing supporters are seen as traditionalists, believing people should work to support themselves and their family, they do not agree with paying for others’ education and the national health service. Donald Trump is viewed by some as a populist leader. He is seen as a divider, not a uniter, and effects who goes into power. His policies can stoke working-class anxieties and many people see his controversial comments as a way to win votes, but not everyone agrees this is the definition of a populist.Trump branded Mexicans as “rapists” and “criminals” when beginning his campaign. Trump wants a wall built on the southern border which shows he advocates extreme actions, however, he is not extreme in other areas such as healthcare. Economic Some countries have a boycott and sanctions imposed on them, such as Saudi Arabia’s sanctions on Qatar. Arab neighbours accused Qatar of helping extremist organisations and Islamist militants such as Al-Qaeda and Islamic State group Muslim Brotherhood who were democratically elected into Egypt, and Hamas. There are economic sanctions because it costs a lot to bomb, maintain troops, a lot is spent on the military, so the money is not spent as much on other things. After its regional neighbours cut diplomatic ties with Qatar, who refused to comply with a 13-point ultimatum, there have been economic implications. Saudi Arabia now ships or flies in food as the only land border, air and sea routes have been closed off. Qatar has been described as Al Jazeera’s “money machine” and Al Jazeera was shut down in Qatar. Qatar Airways plays a huge role in Qatar’s economy and has been slammed by the blockade. The 2022 World Cup could be affected by the closure of the airspace and land borders with material shortages hindering the construction worker’s progress. Citizens from surrounding Arab countries have been banned from entering Qatar which may result in a shortage of workforce including doctors, engineers, lawyers and construction workers which poses a problem for local and international firms operating in Qatar. Social The media’s role largely affects how we feel as a society. After a terrorist attack, there is usually a positive response, with a resurgence in community spirit, mutual support and the formation of stronger bonds between people in a community as people show solidarity with victims and their families. After the recent Manchester Arena bombing, celebrities responded by fundraising as the One Love Manchester benefit concert was aired live on television, peaking at a phenomenal 14.5 million viewers. With technology broadcasting regular updates when an attack takes place, we see the brutal reality of these events. The gory images of wounds, victims fleeing the scene, desperate to survive makes headlines in newspapers for everyone to see. This psychologically affects us and the level of exposure significantly affect my views as I feel more vulnerable.Alongside the positive responses and the renewed sense of community circulating in the recovery from terror attacks, there can be persecution in communities. Fascists and right-wings are fuelled, with backlash and attacks on members of the religion the terrorists claim to practice. Hate crimes and acid attacks are sharply on the rise, notably against innocent Muslims as ISIS continue to launch attacks. Following the atrocities in Manchester, Westminster and London Bridge, levels of hate crime and abuse surged in days after terrorist attacks in the UK according to the National Police Chiefs’ Council (NPCC). The police reported 234 hate crime incidents two days after the Westminster Bridge attack, 273 after the Manchester bombing and 319 two days after the atrocities at London Bridge. Technological Modern technology has changed the way we communicate and interact at all levels. Recent cases such as that of Linda Wenzel have shown us how modern technology can be abused to groom young people susceptible to radicalisation. Sixteen-year-old schoolgirl Linda Wenzel fled Pulsnitz in Germany to join ISIS militants and has become known as the ISIS bride. A video emerged of her being dragged by Iraqi soldiers from a jihadi lair in Mosul crying in pain, covered in dirt and wounded The footage shot by members of the Islamic State stronghold clearly demonstrates how modern technology shows extremism because after the video she faced execution in Iraq. An easily manipulated school girl is going to be executed because the ISIS recruiter responsible for grooming and radicalising her through technology has lured her to the ‘caliphate’, and technology played a significant role in the process of brainwashing her. Negative technological extremism is rife nowadays with fanatics such as ISIS using social media as a platform to air their extremist views to large audiences of people, with the number of worldwide users of social media platforms expected to reach some 2.95 billion by 2020, around a third of Earth’s entire population. From the government’s perspective, more money is being spent on surveillance and weapons to protect countries as security measures are constantly being increased. According to the BBC, security services like surveillance cameras have prevented 13 potential terror attacks since June 2013. This is why the streets of European cities are being equipped with more security equipment, stepping up security on suspected new terror plots and the police force carry more weapons. Legal Laws are made to protect people, and a recent ban on large electronic devices has made it difficult for people to access certain material. The ban was imposed to reduce terror threats for people travelling abroad from Muslim- majority countries including Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Tunisia. They are barred from having devices that are larger than 16cm long, 9.3cm wide or 1.5cm deep in cabin baggage.The travel ban generated controversy centred around how effective the plans will be towards the identification of terror threats. These airports were selected based on a threat picture with the government’s growing concerns around terrorists’ ongoing interest in targeting planes by smuggling explosive devices. Ultimately they aim to protect the passenger, cabin crew and pilot’s safety. Some people have taken offence to the ban which has been enforced in the US with Donald Trump issuing a Muslim ban within a week of becoming president. He has been called “the Islamophobia president.” The ban on electronic devices on some airlines could be seen as extremism as some technologists see the ban as illogical. The same risk of laptops being used as explosives could exist in checked baggage and some phones which are allowed have the same capabilities as larger devices. Consequently, people believe that Trump is targeting Islam as no American carriers were affected by the rules.I understand the additional security measures for people’s safety because terrorist attacks are on the rise. However, I can also see how people could view the ban as targeting a specific group rather than addressing specific security concerns, especially because the US security services refused to comment on the matter at the beginning. Furthermore, I see issues with having all electronic devices in checked baggage because it encourages theft and some laptop batteries catch fire which is less easily detected away from the cabin in the cargo hold. On the other hand, I understand that computed tomography in airports can detect explosives better if they are in checked luggage than the x-ray used to scan hand luggage so those passengers committing a criminal offence intending to carry out an act of terror can be identified. Environmental Environmental activists go to extreme lengths to promote their points. An environmental extremist movement I researched was the Voluntary Human Extremist Movement which advocates the self-extinction of humankind. The movement claims that we are wholly responsible for the ecological damage. They want to stop the human race from breeding, but I believe that if they think they could stop us from breeding, they should be able to prevent us from polluting on such a mass scale before taking such extensive measures. Whereas controlling overpopulation, the less forceful solution, is an effective way of managing the damage that humans cause to ecosystems everywhere. I can see how excessive breeding has affected the biosphere and driven species to extinction but there is no way to completely stop people from having children because we are culturally conditioned to do so.With the recent conflict happening in Syria, media coverage has shown how weapons and bombing destroys infrastructure, the environment and landscape, leaving Syria reduced to rubble. Many buildings are on the brink of collapse which has made the country appear unsightly compared to the historical buildings which once dominated Syria before the civil war. Precious monuments have been lost in the Middle East, for example, ISIS has targeted the ancient Palmyra site and changed the appearance of Syria. Fumes from the chemical attack carried out and continuous bombing pollutes the air. Exposure to the chemicals has many repercussions, as we live with long- term health problems after inhaling the toxins, and may become chronically ill. Such warfare can cause cancer and damage to the human nervous system. The environment is adversely affected because any animals in the war-torn country are exposed to the serious health problems as well, which disrupts the natural ecosystem and food chains. Chemicals can all contaminate rivers and soil in the affected area. The widespread damage means there can be limited access to water and food and with the several health threats already posed by the civil war, lack of basic provisions causes additional problems such as widespread hunger. P E S T L E