Establishing social justice and giving each of its dimensions the sufficient attention are necessary for the welfare of the state and for maintaining a stable society. Consequently, the aspects or the so-called dimensions of social justice possess a considerable amount of Germany’s attention in order to ensure social justice.
Aiming at fulfilling each of the six dimensions, Germany as for preventing poverty: made several approaches as it made the poor people themselves work on improving their productive capabilities i.e. it used a participatory mechanism to face poverty, part of this method is that the country made the poor also act as a whole independent group in implementing the development programmes, Germany also reinforced institutional and financial sustainability and worked on enhancing the institutions to offer a strong cohesive base for the required political and legal conditions for development and reducing poverty. Furthermore, to ensure fair definition of “The poor” and in order to make sure that the development programs are targeting the eligible groups, Germany used fixed indicators that are inclusive; including the women who are known to form the majority of the poor.
Moving to the second dimension which is concerned with education, Germany does prioritize education and it believes in its indispensable role in reaching social justice. Some claim that in addition to poverty prevention, equitable education can be enough to consider a society a just one. So, to ensure achieving equality in education, Germany made a very significant act which is elimination or removal of universities’ tuition fees claiming that they are unjust and discourage the young, especially those of the lower classes to aim to complete their education. Moreover, the BMZ (Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development in Germany) aims at promoting connections between governmental and non-governmental actors involved in the educational system to make sure that a high quality of education is accessible by all the sectors of the society. As for the poor in the rural areas who send their children to work in order to increase the household income at the expense of their education, the government tries to completely remove child labour by giving those poor families subsides instead of the money they would’ve earned by sending their children to work.
For the third dimensions, the labour market access, first off, to offer the youth just job opportunities and to overcome the problem of youth unemployment, Germany introduced a dual system or the dual vocational training system1 which implies the training of the young people in a business in order to acquire practical experience and be well prepared for the labour market while receiving education from a vocational school. Secondly, Germany is promoting the workforce development institutions and the national public employment services which in addition to asserting active employment programmes, it manages unemployment benefits. Besides, the country focused on activating the unemployed, giving the jobseekers social assistance regardless of their social level or the category they belong to.
Facing discrimination and providing social cohesion is a tough task but still, Germany managed to do so in a very effective way by generally enforcing the political and social climate suitable for confronting discrimination effectively. Germany worked on bringing different lobbying groups, distinct social institutions and groups together for negotiations and exchanged acceptance, established projects whose main characteristic is equality. The country also in a very remarkable approach, involved the migrants into its social welfare system. Finally, and the most important move in this regard, the establishing of more intensive anti-discrimination legislations .
Even if the health system in Germany is largely inclusive, it still has some drawbacks that the country is trying to face by making the contract between the doctors and the health authorities freer in order to redistribute the doctors in the far rural areas. The country also seeks total abolition of the constraints on the poor, women, sexual or ethnic minorities healthcare access rights.
The final dimension of the six is the intergenerational justice. Intergenerational issues have become a political priority in Germany, the country tried to achieve intergenerational justice by a constitutionally guaranteed objective of it however, this isn’t very promising because of its inflexible nature that doesn’t match the ambiguity of the future and also due to its inferiority to the political actions or decisions. Another alternative that seems a bit more effective is the creation of “representative of future generations” to protect the rights and interests of the upcoming generations.
1 “Dual training is a successful model.” Deutschland.de. July 11, 2017. https://www.deutschland.de/en/topic/knowledge/education-learning/dual-training-is-a-successful-model.