EFFECT its byproducts when these chemicals are released


Achuba ,F. I .
Department of Biochemistry, Delta State University, PMB 1, Abraka Nigeria. [email protected]

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The toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon across the
living systems is now a common knowledge among the scientific community. What
is lacking is a mini-scale antidote that can be adopted by the inhabitants of
crude oil producing areas of the world. This was the reason for this study. The
study was comprised forty eight female Wister rats divided into six groups of
eight rats each. The rats were fed as described thus. Group 1: ((normal
Control). Group 2:   feed mixed with 5.0g
oil palm leaf. Group 3: feed mixed with 10.0g oil palm leaf. Group 4: Feed
mixed with 4ml crude oil (Crude oil Control). Groups 5 and 6: Contaminated diet
mixed with ground oil palm leaf (5.0 g and 10.0 g respectively). At the end of
exposure periods (three and six months respectively), the rats were sacrificed
and the kidney used to prepare supernatant used for the determinations oxidative
stress indices (lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity). The results
show that pretreatment of crude oil contaminated diet with oil palm leaf tend
to restore values of lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity close to
control values. Thus, it is pertinent to state that there exist potentials in
the use oil palm leaf in the treatment of crude oil toxicity. And indeed
setting a fresh agenda for further serious scientific investigations




Keywords: Crude oil, Kidney, Lipid peroxidation, Oil
palm, .Xanthine oxidase,



 1.0 Introduction

 Humans and animals get exposed to crude oil or
its byproducts when these chemicals are released into surrounding environment
during oil exploration activities, equipment failures, corrosion, illegal
bunkering, usage, oil theft and illicit refining 1-3. Crude oil stimulates
oxidative stress in animals 4, 5. Lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase
activity are part of oxidative stress indices. Lipid peroxidation elicits
oxidative damage in plants and animals and its value in conjunction with alterations
in the level of antioxidants represent a measure of oxidative stress. Similarly,
the activity of xanthine oxidase is an example of defense mechanism as well as
a measure of oxidative stress 6. Report indicated that crude Petroleum oil is
harmful to the kidney and the deleterious action is based on oxidative stress 7.

Many byproducts
of the oil palm tree are  medicinal, the
juice  from palm leaves have wound
healing property while the sap is used as laxative 8.This is due to the
presence of  biologically active
compounds rich in medicinal and antioxidant properties 9, 10.  Earlier report confirmed the presence of phytochemicals
namely flavonoid, tannin and phenols in the leaves of oil palm, hence its
ability as an effective antioxidant 11. In fact, oil palm leaf extract
contains more antioxidative phenolic compounds than various green tea extracts 12.
Oil palm leaf extract is a potential new source of functional food ingredient,
based on reports of its health benefit 13 .This study is aimed at evaluating
the protective potentials of oil palm leaf against crude oil contaminated diet
induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

2.0 Materials and methods

The crude oil used for this study was obtained from
Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) Warri, Delta State, Nigeria. The
palm frond used was obtained from Elaeis guineensis tree in Obiaruku,
Delta state, Nigeria Forty eight (48) female albino wistar rats with weights
ranging from 0.088kg to 0.182 kg obtained from the animal house of Department
of Anatomy, Delta State University, Abraka were used for this study. The rats
were housed in a standard wooden cage made up of wire gauze, net and solid
woods and left to acclimatize for one week on grower’s marsh and tap water at laboratory temperature of 28C and 12 hour day/ night
regime. After the acclimatization period, the rats were weighed and

2.1 Preparation of leaf powder.

leaves were isolated from the stock and sun- dried. The dried leaf was then
ground with domestic kitchen blender into a fine powder and stored in a clean
and sealed plastic container

2.2Treatment of animals

The forty eight (48) female albino wistar rats were
assigned to six (6) groups according to their weights, with eight rats in each
group. Rats in the control group which is Group 1 were fed with grower’s marsh
only. Rats in Group 2 were fed with grower’s marsh and 5g of powdered palm
frond. Group 3 rats were fed with grower’s marsh and 10g of powdered palm leaves.
Group 4 rats were fed with grower’s marsh contaminated with crude oil (4ml per
100g of feed). Rats in Group 5 were fed grower’s marsh contaminated with crude
oil (4ml per 100g of feed) plus 5g of powdered palm fronds. While rats in Group
6 were fed with crude oil contaminated marsh (4ml per 100g of feed) plus 10g of
powdered palm leaves. The rats in each group were allowed access to clean
drinking water while the experiment lasted. The feeds were prepared fresh daily
and stale feed remnants were discarded regularly. The animals in each group
were exposed to their respective diets for three and six months respectively. The National Institute of health guide
for the care and use of laboratory animals (NIH, 1985) was adopted all through the experiment





2.3 Collection
of samples

After the first exposure period( three months),  four rats from each group were sacrificed and
the kidneys were harvested. Five grams (5.0 g) of the kidneys were weighed in
chilled conditions and homogenized with 5ml of normal saline in a mortar. The mixture was diluted with known amount of buffered saline
before being centrifuged and the supernatant was transferred into plastic tubes
and stored at – 4C before used for analysis within forty eight hours. This same
procedure was adopted after six months exposure period.

2.4 Determination of lipid peroxidation and xanthine
oxidase activity

The activity of
xanthine oxidase in the kidney of rats was measured using the method of Bergmeyer
et. al. 14, based on the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid, a molecule that
absorbs light maximally at 290 nm. A unit of activity is that forming one
micromole of uric acid per minute at 25oC. Lipid peroxidation
in the kidney of rats was measured by the thiobarbituric acid reacting
substances TBARS, method of Gutteridge and Wilkins 15.

2.5Statistical Analysis

of variance (ANOVA) and post
Hoc Fisher’s test for multiple comparison was performed using statistical
package for social science (SPSS), version 20  to determine statistical significant
differences between means. P values