Computational a straight line (Spalter, 1999). It determines

Computational techniques improved
considerably the animation production in terms of efficiency and costs because
traditional animation requires more time and labour force to create animations.

One recent example is the movie Loving Vincent, that required more than a
hundred animators/painters to create the animated movie. Besides cost and efficiency
advantages, the results achieved with the 3D animation are not possible to
achieve with traditional animation. For example, if one considers the point of
view that composes of each frame, it has a huge impact on the storytelling and
in the viewer experience. Changes in perspective and the point of view of the
frames have a bigger impact on traditional animation because it cannot be
easily done, while in it can be easily changed in 3D projects. Considering
this, computational technologies allow the animators and producers to be more
creative because they can try more option during the production process.

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For example, the scripted animation technique
is based on animated frames and the interpolation of it in the in-between
frames. In the traditional animation, the illusion of movement was created
through the illustration frame-by-frame, with an illustrator responsible for
the key-frames and a team of animators working in the in-between frames. In computer
animation, on the other hand, the key-frames are set and the in-between frames
are generated automatically by the system through interpolation. One interpolation
technique to animate the in-between frames is the linear interpolation (Fig.

13), that allows calculating new positions at equal intervals along a straight
line (Spalter, 1999). It determines the number of positions calculated and thus
the number of frames created. There is also the nonlinear interpolation (Fig.

14), that creates a more realistic motion effect. In the case of frames
animation, the computational techniques reduced the time and also the
production costs, because the computer substituted a number of people that
would be involved in the process of drawing the frames. At the same time, the
accuracy in terms of the ‘pencil strokes’ of the draw are standardized, what
would be hard to achieve in the hand-drawing process. For example, by observing
the classic Snow White and the Seven
Dwarfs from Disney, it can be noticed some little changes in the formats of
the animated objects and characters, also the flow of movement is not as
realistic as would be if made with computer technologies.