Collective if each shepherd wants to let their

 Collective action problem arises when people
independent actions produce a worse outcome than they would if they could find
a way to coordinate. Collective action problems are diverse but one of the
most common occurs when everyone in a group share a goal, but achieving the
goal requires only some members of the group to contribute (Anomaly). What
professor Anomaly describes in his description is that basically, collective action
problem is a situation where all members in a group have a choice between two
or more alternatives, but rationally, (in the Economic Sense, to maximize one’s
expected return (Total Expected Benefits Less Total Expected Costs) ( McGuire)).
Their election may differ from their collective preferred elections. The
rational election of an individual may create a cost to the group. Collective   action
problem occurs when individuals would all benefit from a certain action. Then
rational individual accepts this as a collective action and the cost of the
action is shared among the group. Mainly the collective problem exists when the
people do not have stimulus to act. Due to the diversity of types of collective
actions, it’s important to have in mind that not all of these can be solved.

can split collective action problem into general categories. The first type,
the fail of coordination in a group, when individuals have a unique preference
on how to take action, but each individual would rather take a less preferred
course if everyone in a group agree to take the same action. For example, in a
field of grass a couple of shepherds want to feed their sheep, but if each
shepherd wants to let their sheep eat as much as they want, grass would
eradicate on that field. But if they regulate and agree to let their sheep each
certain amount of grass, it could be potentially functional, but as this is
only based on trust, each individual potentially can act selfishly and let
their sheep eat more, thinking it would not affect if only one of them is doing
it, but if all the shepherd arrive to the same reasoning, then grass will
eventually eradicate. The Second type is when there is failure to achieve a
result everyone prefers over the result obtained as consequence of everyone
wanted to achieve their most preferred result without actually paying for it. For
example, an intersection with a four way stop sign. The four lines will pile up
quickly form each direction. Drivers have no control of what is going to happen
until reaching the front of the line. Every driver will try to cross the intersection
as soon as possible. Increasing the traffic as the four driver in the front
lines battle trying to go first or waiting for another to go first.