CHAPTER Company who are ordering and purchasing their

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction:

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This chapter first describes the methodology
of the research, such as research method, community, sample and sampling
method, and then the research tools (introducing, describing its features,
validity and reliability, and components) are examined and Finally, the method
of research implementation and statistical methods of data analysis are
examined.

Research plan:

According to the research title, which studies the effect of online
marketing on customer behavior, it is clear that the present study is a
descriptive (case study). Also, according to the study subject, its results
will be used to solve problems and the results will be used for the Digikala
company, human resources and marketers of Digikala company, the brand-name
businesses, startups, other Marketers of other companies and readers are using
research results, The present research is also applicable in the target.

Statistical population:

The statistical population of the present
research, consists of all customers of Digikala Company who are ordering and
purchasing their products online. According to the calculations, the number of these people was
estimated to be 750. The
demographic information of these people is shown below

Frequency distribution of sample
based on age range

Percent

Number

Age range

%4.4

11

15-25

%38

95

26-35

%26.8

67

36-45

%19.6

49

46-55

%8.8

22

56-65

%2.4

6

Upper than 65

%100

250

Total

 

The results of the table show that %4.4 of
sample (11 people) are in the age range of 15 to 25, %38 of sample (95 people)
are in the age range of 26 to 35, %26.8 of sample (67 people) are in the age
range of 36 to 45, %19.6 of sample (49 people) are in the age range of 46 to
55, %8.8 of sample (22 people) are in the age range of 56 to 65 and %2.4 of
sample (6 people) are in the age range of upper than 65 years old.

 

 

 

Frequency distribution of sample
based on education degree

Percent

Number

Education degree

%3.6

9

Diploma

%15.2

38

Associate

%61.2

153

Bachelor

%12.4

31

Mastery

%7.6

19

P.H.D

%100

250

Total

 

The results of the table show that %3.6 of
sample (9 people) have diploma degree, %15.2 of sample (38 people) have
associate degree, %61.2 of sample (153 people) have bachelor degree, %12.4 of
sample (31 people) have mastery degree and %7.6 of sample (19 people) have P.H.D
degree.

Statistical population and sample:

The statistical population of the present
research, consists of all customers of Digikala Company who are ordering and
purchasing their products online. The sample of this study is 250 customers of
the statistical community that selected using the Cochran sampling formula.
Below is the sample selection process has shown:

 

ü  n = Minimum sample size

ü  N = Statistical population size

ü  t = The value of the normal variable of the unit corresponding to
the confidence level of ?-1 is 1.96.

ü  e = Allowed error rate, equivalent 0.05

ü  p = Estimate of variable attribute ratio

ü  q = 1- p

The number of
people in the statistical population is 750, that is N = 750. The value of P
and Z2 can also be approximated. Estimated error value equivalent 0.05 is considered.
According to the population volume and using the Cochran sampling formula,
finally the sample size was 250.

Information gathering method:

The main method of collecting information in this research is
through a researcher-made questionnaire to measure the customers and consumers
behavior of products and goods introduced through online marketing. The other
part of the research data is collected and analyzed through documentary,
librarian, review surveys and previous research on the impact of online
marketing on customer behavior. In the present research, the following methods
are also used to collect information and review them:

ü  Acquisition, checking and analysis of library information and
documents, and surveys references about marketing, marketing approaches,
Internet marketing, online marketing, consumer purchasing behavior, customer
behavior, and the relationship between these variables.

ü  Checking and study books about marketing, marketing approaches,
Internet marketing, online marketing, consumer purchasing behaviors, customer
behavior, and the relationship between these variables, as well as other
factors related to research.

ü  Use of analytical projects, marketing journals, economics journals,
internal and external papers, dissertations and thesis related to research
topic in relation to marketing concept, marketing approaches, internet
marketing, online marketing, consumer purchasing behavior, customer behavior,
and the relationship between these variables.

ü  Sampling, highlighting existing information and databases, and
similar approaches about marketing, marketing approaches, Internet marketing,
online marketing, consumer purchasing behavior, customer behavior, and the
relationship between these variables.

ü  Use of the Internet and valid sites to collect relevant information
in the field of theoretical foundations related to the variables of research as
well as to review and record the research background in the relevant fields.

 

Information gathering tool:

To measure the effectiveness of online
marketing on customer behavior, a researcher-made questionnaire is used. The
questionnaire has 36 questions and 6 subscales of marketing environment (1 to
8), product features (9 to 13), security and trust (14 to 19), Promotional
offers (20 to 26), prices (27 to 31) and ease of purchase (32 to 36) have been
measured. The score of this questionnaire is five degrees in the Likert scale,
so that for I quite disagree (1), I disagree (2), I no idea (3), I agree (4)
and I quite agree (5) score is considered Has been.

It should be noted that the subscale of the
Internet marketing environment from the research of Gagarz and Grovers (2003),
the subscale of product features from Hokyo et al. (2009), the subset of
security and trust from Salisbury et al. (1998), the subsample of the proposed
upgrade from Hakuqui research and Associates (2009), the subscale of the price
of Zochen and Dobbinsky (2003) and the subset of ease of purchase from the
research of Stewal and W. (2009) have been extracted.

To score each subscale, the scores
of the relevant questions are gathered and, finally, the total score of all
questions is considered as a general score. A higher score means the
effectiveness of online marketing on customer behavior. Validity and
reliability of this questionnaire were 0.76 and 0.85, respectively.

Descriptive statistics of questionnaire questions:

In the following tables, questions about the indicators of each of
the six subsamples under consideration are presented.

Online
marketing environment

Product
Feature

Security
and trust

Promotional
offers

Price

Ease
of purchase

be
better

increasing
awareness

personal
and financial information

sales
increase

be
cheap

be
easy

be
useful

physical
review

safety

creativity

comparison

Simplicity

Be
enjoyable

be
suitable

information
usage

attraction

discount

purchase
order

better
service

fit
to needs

confidence

convincing

shopping
times

requirement
search

satisfaction

quality

lack
of fear

better
suggestions

affordability

Traceability

efficiency

product
variety

good
Shopping

 

 

 

innovation

 

feeling
of security

 

 

 

attraction

 

security

 

 

 

 

 

Specific
Definition of Terms:

Online marketing environment: It is important for marketers to maintain
customers in a highly competitive Internet environment and estimate the size of
the destination market. To meet customer expectations, including needs, wants,
tastes and preferences, a site should be designed in a variety of ways and
provide users with a lot of facilities (Hakiko et al., 2014).

 

Product features: Generally, customers choose to buy a store
that maximizes their satisfaction with their quality. Products that need to be
tapped or tested with a sense of purchase are sold less through the internet,
and therefore tangible and intangible are important features that should be
considered in the Internet environment for products (Vijayasarathy, 2012).

 

Security and Trust: Security is an important factor in increasing
customer satisfaction. In cases where probabilities and dangers also exist, trust
in the product will be of special significance. Safety creates trust, and trust
is the factor of success. Whatever the level of security and trust for a
product is higher, the need for physical activity in buying gets less and
e-shopping becomes easier (Coldman, 2016).

Promotional offers: Promotion means all the things a marketer
does to deliver a product from the factory to the client, including promotions,
personal sales, public relations, public relations, or globalization and
commerce. Sales promotion can provide many benefits to customers, the most
obvious of which is financial savings. However, it can bring about factors such
as quality, convenience, value creation and entertainment for customers
(Pithadia and Sharma, 2016).

 

Price: The direct price in electronic purchases
through the Internet includes the purchase of hardware and software, as well as
payments for Internet subscription and updates, regardless of that price, the
price of the product in the traditional market, which is inherent It is a
perceived financial risk for the product (Chen and Dubinsky, 2013).

 

Ease of use: The belief of the user about how much use of
a particular system will be effortless and comfortable. Ease of use is also
expressed in the literature on online concepts, usability or efficiency, which
includes ease of tracing, ease of use, search performance, download speed, site
layout, and ease of Internet shopping (Jaturavith, 2015).

 

Questionnaire
for measurement of online marketing impact on customer behavior

I quite agree

I agree

No idea

I disagree

I quite disagree

 
 
 
Item

 
 
 
Indicator

 
 
 
Row

 

 

 

 

 

Online shopping is better than shopping at the store

 
 
 
 
Marketing environment

1

 

 

 

 

 

Online shopping is useful for me

2

 

 

 

 

 

Online shopping is enjoyable for me

3

 

 

 

 

 

Online shopping offers better services to me

4

 

 

 

 

 

I am satisfied with the online websites I buy

5

 

 

 

 

 

Using the online shopping gives me the opportunity to
buy more efficiently

6

 

 

 

 

 

Online Shopping has made innovation foe me

7

 

 

 

 

 

The online shopping environment has attracted me to
online marketing sites shopping

8

 

 

 

 

 

Online markets have increased my awareness of the
features of the products

 
 
 
Product features

9

 

 

 

 

 

The products I buy from the Internet are suitable

10

 

 

 

 

 

The products I buy from the Internet are tailor-made to
my needs

11

 

 

 

 

 

The products I buy from the Internet have high quality

12

 

 

 

 

 

The variety of Internet products is huge

13

 

 

 

 

 

Internet marketing sites are a safe place to provide my
financial and personal information

 
 
 
 
Security and trust

14

 

 

 

 

 

Online shopping is very safe

15

 

 

 

 

 

Online shopping websites do not misuse the customer’s
personal information

16

 

 

 

 

 

I feel confident in providing my financial and personal
information on online sales websites

17

 

 

 

 

 

When selling websites asking me for personal
information, I’m not worried

18

 

 

 

 

 

The experience of good purchases of the Internet has
increased my confidence in marketing sites

19

 

 

 

 

 

The high number of marketing sites indicates the high
security of these sites

 
 
 
 
 
 
Promotional offers

20

 

 

 

 

 

Online marketing sites are trusted for me

21

 

 

 

 

 

Online marketing offers more suggestions for increasing
sales

22

 

 

 

 

 

Suggestions to increase sales on the Internet are more
creative and fun

23

 

 

 

 

 

Suggestions for boosting sales on the Internet are appealing
and impressive

24

 

 

 

 

 

Suggestions for increasing sales on the Internet are
compelling for the customer

25

 

 

 

 

 

Internet marketing provides better suggestions for
increasing of online customers

26

 

 

 

 

 

Online shopping are cheaper than store shopping

 
 
 
Price

27

 

 

 

 

 

Comparing the price of products with other competitors
on the Internet is fast

28

 

 

 

 

 

Online shopping will get great discounts

29

 

 

 

 

 

The trust of customers at the price of the Internet is
affecting the frequency of purchasing products

30

 

 

 

 

 

Online shopping offer prices are tailored to the
customer’s financial capability

31

 

 

 

 

 

Buying from internet marketing sites is easy

 
 
 
Ease of purchase

32

 

 

 

 

 

You can simply use the web to find information about
products

33

 

 

 

 

 

Purchase order is easily done on online marketing sites

34

 

 

 

 

 

Searching for requirements on online marketing sites is
easy

35

 

 

 

 

 

The ability to track requests on online marketing sites
is easy

36

 

Research methodology:

In this research, the independent and dependent variables are
determined initially by studying the tasks performed on the topic. For each of
these variables, the secret variables are chosen to fully define the
independent and dependent variables. Then, for each of these hidden variables,
several apparent variables are considered, and based on these apparent
variables, questions are designed and put into a researcher-made questionnaire
for the statistical sample selected in the project. After collecting questionnaires,
the data will enter into the statistical software and will examine the
hypotheses set forth in the research. Then, they interpret the results and
compare the results with studies done in this field.

 

 

The theoretical framework of research:

Offer Model:

Customer behavior

Online marketing environment

Ease of use

Price

Promotional offers

Security and Trust

Product features

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data analysis method:

In the descriptive statistics section of the demographic charts and
tables, the central tendencies (mean, mean, frequency) and dispersion tendency
(variance, standard deviation) and inferential statistics are also used for
analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The SPSS 23 software will use to
analyze the data.

In analyzing
the hypotheses, the first analysis of covariance analysis (ANCOVA) was considered:

ü  Each person’s score must be independent of other people,
in other words, any observation or measurement should not be affected by other
observations or measurements. In this study, each of the variables was
independently measured.

ü  The dependent variable is measured at the relative or
distant level, that means a continuous scale, not a class, in which all
dependent variables are continuous in scale.

ü  Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to check normality.

 

 

 

In below table,
the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was conducted to examine the normality of the
customer behavior variable.

 

Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

Dependent variable

Sig

Z

0.10

0.13

customer behavior

 

The value of
the significant level of the table shows that the assumption of normalization
for the dependent variable is observed and parametric tests can be used.

General stages
of statistical hypotheses test:

 

Step 1: Defining the statistical hypotheses
H0 and H1 based on the rules that will be stated. If the
research hypothesis has a specific boundary, H0 represents the
claim, otherwise the defect is defined in H1 and the research
hypothesis is in the form of the H1 statistical symbol will take. It
is certain that the assumptions H0 and H1 are
complementary.

 

Step 2: Determining the distribution of
statistical sampling and the type of test statistic. The sampling distribution
depends on the estimated condition of the claimed parameter. Depending on which
type of parameter is the research assumption, the sampling distribution,
statistics, and test statistic will change.

 

Step 3: Determine the surface area below the
curves H0 and H1 and calculate the critical value. The
surface below the curves of H0 and H1 depends on the
sampling distribution and the amount of ?. A sequence or two sequences of the
test has a direct effect on the surface below the curve of the statistical
hypotheses. The rule is that H0 contains a confidence level and H1
has a level equal to ?. The calculation of the standard value that the H0
and H1 separators are numerically is another essential step in this
step. The standard value is extracted from the existing table based on the type
of test and the value of ?. This value is called a critical value, given its
sign. The standard value and the required statistical table for its extraction
are determined based on the statistics.

 

Step 4: Decision
Stage: At this stage, the amount of test statistic calculated in the second
stage is compared with the critical value in the third stage, if the test
statistic is placed in the acceptance zone H0, it is said that at
the level of confidence there is sufficient reason to accept the H0 has
it. Otherwise H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted at the
error level of ? percent. In general, the hypothesis test never proves the
hypothesis. Instead, they only interfere in the assertion that the hypotheses
are rejected or rejected. Therefore, if the hypothesis is not rejected, this is
not the reason why this hypothesis is a correct hypothesis. It can be said that
the hypothesis is now possible.

Step 5: After confirmation or rejection of H0, the analyst must clearly state whether the research hypothesis
has been accepted or rejected, and the researcher will never claim a proof of
research hypothesis or statistical hypotheses, but will be cautious in his
analysis in an inductance.