BTEC Level 3 Subsidiary Diploma in SportUnit 11 Sports Nutrition – Assignment 2Name: Adeline TamForm: 12NStudent Number: 7441 MacronutrientsMacronutrients are nutrients in food that are classified according to the amount of nutrients required by your body. The three macronutrients in nutrition are carbohydrates, proteins and fats. They are required in a large amount everyday. These nutrients also have a function of providing energy from your diet. Carbohydrates:Carbohydrates are biological molecules that consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates are the sugars, starches and fibers that are found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products. Carbohydrates helps to form energy from your body and can be accessed rapidly. Other than that carbohydrate foods are divided into two basic types and they are generally known as simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates are just sugars. They are formed from single and double sugar units and they can be digested easily and they can also be absorbed. The most simplest carbohydrates unit is the monosaccharide and the most common type of monosaccharide is glucose. Proteins: Proteins are large, complex molecules that plays a lot of vital roles in the body. They mostly do work in the cells and they are also required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues as well as organs. Proteins are made up of thousands of amino acids which are attached to one another in a long chain. There are 20 differernt types of amino acids that can be combined to create protein. Protein helps to sustain the optimal growth and functioning. Different proteins contain different numbers and combinations of amino acids. FunctionDescriptionAntibodyThe antibody binds to specific foreign particules such as the virus and bactefia which helps to protect the human body. E.g. Immunglobulin GEnzymeEnzymes are biological catalysts and they cary out almost all of the thousands of chemical reactions that take place in different cells. They also assist with the new molecules in DNA. E.g. Phenylalanine hydroxylase MessengerMessenger proteins relays different signals in order to coordinate the biological processes between different cells, tissues and organs. E.g. Growth hormone Structural componentThese proteins provide structure and supports for cells. They also allow the body to move. E.g. Actin Transport / storageThese proteins combined and carry atoms and small molecules together in different cells throughout the body. E.g. Ferritin Fats There are different types of fats: saturated fat and unsaturated fat. Both saturated and unstaruated fat can be found in a lot of foods, they are usually in proteins, dairyproducts and carbohydrates. Sometimes fats referred as “oils” or “lipids”. If there is food that contins both types of fat, it will be compared on which one is more notable. Fats are primarily used to absorb nutrients into the body. The reason why we ofte gain weight after eating fat is because we have excess starch and carbohydrates in our diet and the fat cells fill with ecess sugar which will end up causing the appearance of weight. Fat supplies the body with certain nutrients: vitamin A, D, E K. These “fat-soluble” vitamins are all stored in the liver and in fatty tissues. MicronutrientsThere are two types of micronutrients and they are vitamins and minerals. Micronutrients plays a vital rols in the human nutrition which include prevention and treatment of different disease and different conditions. It also helps with boosting up the physical and mental functioning. VitaminsVitamins are nutrients and are vital and there is no calories in it. Vitamins perform a specific metabolic function and they prevent particular deficiency diseases. Our body require vitamins in order to maintain our health and vitamins will be supplied in your diet and also from different plants. Except for vitamin D, our human body will be able to absorb that nutrition by sunlight on the skin, sae for vitamin K, it can be produced by the bacteria in the large intestine. Minerals Minerals are nutrients that have no calories and are essential to our life, same as vitamins, minerals are only required in small amounts. And minerals are required depending on the amount of minerals required by the body. Macrominerals Macrominerals such as calcium, and are required in a large amount. Trace elements Trace elements such as copper and selenium are only required in a small amount. All minerals are vital to health and it forms a very important components in the body such as enzymes, hormones, bones as well as connective tissue. They also help with nerve functioning and muscle contracion, the other minerals regulates fluid balance in our body. In order to prevent from excessive build-up, the level of minerals are controlled by how much we absorb and excrete. FibreFibre is a complex carbohydrate. Another term for dietary fibre will be Non-starch polysaccharide (NSP). Non-starch polysaccharide forms the main element of plant cell walls which are also the major component of dietary fibre. The main function of Fibre is to help with digestion by the stomach as well as small intestine. Fibre are acquired from wholegrain cereals, nus, pulses, fruits and vegetables. It helps with prventing and treating dieases including cancer of the colon, heart disease, diabetes and irritable bowel syndrome. There are two types of fibre: soluble and insoluble. Soluble fibre are found in oats, peas, beans, lentls, fruits and vegetables. Soluble fibre plays a important role in controlling the blood glucose and cholesterol. Insoluble fibbre is found in rice, pasta, wholewheat bread, wholegrain cereals, fruits and vegetables. It prevents bowel disorders. It is recommended taking both soluble and insoluble fibre evey day. There are a few ways of measuring body fats as well and they include skin calipers, they are cheap and the method of using it is also very easily to access. It comes in very handy which is why most of the trainers in the gym will use it. Other than that, there is also a bioelectrical impedance montitor and it seems to be affordable to keep one around in the house. It might be found in houses and gyms because the machine will actually give trainers in the gym or users at home of what needs to be worked on since it will show the percentage of body fat alongside with bodyweight and it is also easy to use. Another method is hydrostatic weighing, it is an accurate technique of measuring the body composition, it can also measure the density of the water in your body. Nutritional Requirements Nutritional Requirements is the amount of each nutrient the person need. Everyone is different depening on age, sex, level of exercise and state of health. Some nutrients are more important during different stages of life, for example, childrens and elderly need calcium because it helps to build stronger bones and people who are pregnant need iron because the body needs to use iron to make hemolobin and it also helps to move oxygen from lungsto the rest of the body and to the baby as well. Getting enough iron can help to prevent conditions such as too few red blood cells that might make you feel tired. Essential & Non-Essential Carbohydrates It is recommended that 50-60% of or total daily calorie intake should be from carbohydrates. Athletes might require more intake due to their regular intense training. For example, a marathon runner might need to get 65-70% of their total energy from carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are essential. Firstly, carbohydrates are the main energy source of our body. Secondly, it helps to protect our muscles because carobhydrates are the first source of energy, if there is no carbohydrates, protein from our muscles will be used. Thirdly, it provides nutrients for the good bacteria in the intestines that helps us to digest food. The only carbohydrate that is essential for our body is fibre. Other than that, because energy can come from other sources such as lipids and carbohydrates is just to make sure the body will have efficient energy to use during the day. It is always good to have an adequate amount of carbohydrate intake. People with high carbohydrate requirements might need to eat more frequent meals and snacks or consume more simple carbohydrates to achieve their health requirements. Level of daily activityCarbohydrate per kilogram of body weight (g)Less than 1 hour 4-51 hour 5-61-2 hours6-72-3 hours7-8More than 3 hours 8-10This is a table to show the carbohydrate requirements that is based on daily activity levels. Essential & Non-Essential ProteinIndividuals who are always active such as athletes have a higher protein requirements than usuals in order to accerate tissue growth and repair after trainings or competitions. Overall, the protein intake of individuals should be between 12-15% of the total daily energy intake. Exercise increase protein needs and protein helps to build up and repair muscles. Athletes are likely to eat more in order to meet the increased calories requirements. As mentioned above, Proteins are essential because it helps the regulation of the body’s tissues and organs. It is a core macronutrient. Other than that, it also helps to make enzymes, hormones and other body chemicals. In addition, it is also an important building block of bones, muscles, cartilage, skin and blood. There are some protein that are not essential to our body, meaning that the body might not be able to produce enough of them when presented with substantial stress or illness. Type of activityProtein per kilogtam of body weight (g)Mainly sedentary0.75-1.0Mainly endurance1.2-1.4Mainly strength1.2-1.7Essential & Non-Essential FatsIt is recommended that fat intakes should be reduced to 30-35% of total calorie intake which is around 7- grams per day for females and 90 grams per day for males. In the reduced 30-35% of total calorie intake, only 6-10% should be from saturated fats. Athletes who are always involved in high intensity activity might need to further reduce their overall fat intake to around 25-30% of their total energy consumed to achieve a good carbohydrate intake. Fats are important to the human body but there is a difference between essential and non-essential. The main purpose of fat is to provide energy. The body use fat as a fuel source and fat is the major storage of energy But if there are too much non-essential fat than it can be unhealthy and there will be a high risk of gainingweight or eveloping cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases Nutrition TerminologyRecommend Daily Allowance (RDA) The aim of Recommended Daily Allowance is guidlines that are put together by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Science and the main purpose of these guidlines is to inform people about how much of a specific nutrient our body needs on a daily basis. RDAs apply to vitamins and minerals from food and daily supplemets. Optimum LevelThe purpose of optimum levels of nutrient intake is based in nutritional therape and attempts to take more account of individual requirements, lifestyle and circumstances such as smoking and stressed out. Examples of optimum level will be the limitations and also how much food an athlete is suppose to have everyday: Michael Phelps have 12,000 calorie diet every day in order to become the greatest Olympian ever. Safe Intake (SI) Safe Intake is a term that is used to indicate the intake of a nutrient where there is not enough scientific information to guess the distribution of requirements within a population. It shows to be adequate for most people’s needs but not so high as it might cause unexpected side effects on health. Safe intake is used when there is not enough evidence to set an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR_, Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI), and Lower Reference Nutrient intake (LRNI). The safe intae is the amount that is judged by professionals to be enough for almost everyone. For examples, vitamins that we bought in pharmacies have instructions at the back, telling us the suitable amount of vitamins that we are suppose to eat. The amount of each vitamin and nutrient are related to the person’s age, gender, level of physical activity and health status. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) are mostly used in assessing energy requirement. Many individuals require more or less than the Estimated Average Requirements. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the intake level for a nutrient at which the needs of 50% of the population around the world. Athletes need extra energy in order to maintain their usual life and also to make sure they will have the suitable amount of food for the athlete to eat everyday. Components of a Balanced DietCarbohydrates FatsProteinsWater FibreVitaminsMineralsMacronutrients are carbohydrate, protein and fat. They are categorised according to the relative amounts required by the body. Carbohydrates are the sugars, starches and fibers that are found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products. Macronutrients plays a vital rols in the human nutrition which include prevention and treatment of different disease and different conditions. It also helps with boosting up the physical and mental functioning. It is important to have Macronutrients in our diet because it helps to maintain body functions and it will also help us to carry out activities of our daily lifes much easier and quicker. If our body doesn’t absorb any macronutrients, our body might not be able to work due to the lack of energy provided. Micronutrients are vitamins, minerals. Both vitamins and minerals play a vital role in the human body. Vitamins and minerals can be found from different source which include the sun, a variety of plant and animal sources. Micronutrients plays a vital rols in the human nutrition which include prevention and treatment of different disease and different conditions. It also helps with boosting up the physical and mental functioning. Our body require vitamins in order to maintain our health and vitamins will be supplied in your diet and also from different plants. Except for vitamin D, our human body will be able to absorb that nutrition by sunlight on the skin, sae for vitamin K, it can be produced by the bacteria in the large intestine. Other than Macronutrients and Micronutrients, water is also essential to keep us hydrated during exercise or just in daily life. Dehydration is when the body doesn’t have enough liquid to work efficiently. Dehydration might cause muscle cramps, dizziness or lightheadedness. When we are physically active or have been active for a long period of time, it is important that the athlete need to make sure Complete a one-day food log for a selected elite sports performerAthlete Name: Michael Phelps Sport: Swimming Meal 1Three Fried-egg sandwiches with cheese, lettuce, tomatoes, fried onions and mayonnaiseOne five-egg omelette One bowl of grain Three slice of French toast toppedMeal 2One pound of pastaMeal 3One pound of pasta, an entire pizza Snack 1Three chocolate-chip pancakes Snack 2Two large ham and cheese sandwiches with mayonnaise on white breadPre-Work Out/Post- Work Out/HydrationTwo coups of coffee Energy drinks http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/olympics/2563451/Michael-Phelps-the-extraordinary-12000-calorie-diet-that-fuels-greatest-ever-Olympian-Beijing-Olympics-2008.htmlIn terms of carbohydrates, athletes might require more intake due to their regular intense training. For example, a marathon runner might need to get 65-70% of their total energy from carbohydrates. It is important that marathon runner get enough carbohydrates because carbohydrates helps to form energy from your body can be accessed rapidly.Individuals who are always active, in other words athletes, have a higher protein requirements than usuals in order to accerate tissue growth and repair after trainings or competitions.Protein helps to build and rebuild the muscle, it helps to sustain the optimal growth and function, it also helps with the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues as well as organs. Athletes who are always involved in high intensity activity might need to further reduce their overall fat intake to around 25-30% of their total energy consumed to achieve a good carbohydrate intake. Fagts are important for athletes because both saturated and unstaruated fat can be found in a lot of foods, they are usually in proteins, dairyproducts and carbohydrates. Sometimes fats referred as “oils” or “lipids”. If there is food that contins both types of fat, it will be compared on which one is more notable. Fats are primarily used to absorb nutrients into the body. Fat supplies the body with certain nutrients: vitamin A, D, E K. These “fat-soluble” vitamins are all stored in the liver and in fatty tissues. Athletes need extra energy in order to maintain their usual life and also to make sure they will have the suitable amount of food for the athlete to eat everyday. It is important for athletes to absorb extra energy because it can actually help to improve the training, and the body can also have mor energy to do more trainings. Diet is a meal that we need to have in a daily basis. In order to get a healthy life, it is important that the diet is suitable for what activities we are doing in order to ensure optimal performance, aerobic, anaerobic, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility. It is important because there are a lot of unsaturated fat in the diet but we don’t do any exercise to burn it off, it might end up causing overweight or even have a chance of getting heart attack since the fat got stuck in the blood vessels and the blood can’t get through and cannot be passed to the cells. Another thing to be aware of is appropriate timing and changes to the diet. In order to fuel the exercise, it is important that there should be a pre-season, mid-season, post season, pre-event, inter-event and a post-event. But everytime there should be a limitation with the amount of food that should be eaten in every meal.