Aggression strategy (Buss, 1988). This is supported by

Aggression
occurs in everyday life, it varies in degree and how people interpret it.
According to Bushman & Huesmann (2010) and Dewall, Anderson & Bushman (2012), aggression is a
behaviour in which an individual intends to harm others, who doesn’t wish to be
harmed and avoids harm themselves. Aggression can be exhibited through forms
such as; physical injury, hurt feelings or damaged social relationships (Krahé, 2013; Parrott & Giancola, 2007). Common components to aggression are that; it’s
an observable behaviour, it must be intentional, with the goal of harming,
involves people and the recipient of it must want to avoid it (Allen & Anderson, 2017).
This question refers to biological explanations of aggression, such as; evolutionary,
genetic, and hormonal explanations. However, this essay will also cover social accounts,
which include, Social Learning Theory (SLT), deindividualization and situation
cues. Social psychologists don’t deny innate tendencies in aggression, but as
society has changed over the years, they want to see how these tendencies are
shaped and developed by our social environment. The
first biological approach this essay will discuss, is the evolutionary theory.
This refers to aggression as an adaptive value (Archer,
2009; Buss & Shackelford, 1997; Bushman & Huesmann, 2010), in terms of survival and spreading genes to offspring
and if threatened, humans could become aggressive to defend their female
partners (Daly, Wilson, & Weghorst, 1982). One
aspect of this is sexual jealously. It suggests males are more aggressive due
to fear of cuckoldry and higher parental uncertainty than females, as men wouldn’t
want to invest all their resources in an offspring that isn’t theirs, due to no
beneficial gene spread. Therefore, increasing
their aggression towards females and other rival males to prevent sexual infidelity,
also known as retention strategy (Buss, 1988).
This is supported by Daly & Wilson (1985),
who found 58/214 murder cases were motivated by sexual jealously, suggesting
men have use aggression towards females, to reduce chances of cuckoldry. In addition,
women are also known to be twice as likely to murder out of jealousy (Felson, 1984), for fear a man will invest his resources
elsewhere and will struggle to look after her offspring. An advantage is that,
it can be used in real life application, for instance, use of retention tactics,
can be an early indicator of aggression against partners. However, it is deterministic,
as it suggests people have little or no control over their behaviour and its
purely down to biological factors, disregarding free will. Indicating, aggression towards people as natural and inevitable
and that males are victims of evolution. Furthermore, it doesn’t fulfil the criteria
of what constitutes a science (e.g. falsifiability), due to this theory
being developed over thousands of years, it couldn’t be tested empirically, thus
just speculative. Lastly, there are individual differences, as this theory
fails to explain why some men react differently in the same situations or why
some men adopt. Hence, suggest aggression isn’t universal and not entirely
evolutionary