2.2 the transfer of training. 2.3 Past Research

Related Theories

            The Baldwin & Ford’s (1988) model of training transfer is the
basic formation training transfer constructed model (Burke & Hutchins,
2007; Grossman & Salas, 2011). It consisting training input, training
output where the learning and retention occur and after that the conditions of
transfer which are generalization and maintenance.

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Figure 1: A model of transfer process

Baldwin and Ford (1988)

            According to the model as can be seen in figure 1, the training
outcomes and training-inputs factors are viewed both effects the conditions of
transfer directly and indirectly. There effects were shown in 6 linkage in the
figure which is the process of transfer occurs. To ensure trainee transfer the
trained skill, training material has to be learned and retained (linkage 4 and
5). There are three training inputs affected the outcome of training (learning
and retention) directly (linkage 1, 2 and 3) which are trainee characteristics,
training design and work environment.

the past constructed model by Baldwin and Ford (1988), there is one modern
theory of the transfer of training called Cognitive Theory. The cognitive
transfer theory is relies more on the trainee’s abilities to retain the learned
information. Motivation to transfer is the learner’s intended efforts to
utilize skills and knowledge learned in training setting to a real world work
situation (Noe, 1986). It is focus on individual’s mental models, comprehension
and retention of what information that important in order to increasing the
transfer of training.

Past Research

There are several studies
conducted by researchers on the relationship between work environment factors
and transfer of training. This study was conducted by foreign and Malaysian
researchers testing the research with different samples.

Based on research that
have been conducted in Myanmar by Maung and Chemripong (2014) at private
manufacturing firms, the researchers found three of the hypotheses that
proposed had been supported but supervisor support not significantly related
with transfer of training. The variable that have been used were supervisor
support, peer support, opportunity to use and feedback and 350 data was
collected from 400 distributed questionnaire. It can be said that, the support
from supervisor alone did not presume transfer of training. The findings was
analyzed and supported by using principal component analysis (PCA) followed by
varimaxrotation for 27 survey items and regression analysis to test the

Besides, Homklin,
Takahashi and Techakonont (2013) also conduct the similar research which is
about effects of individual and work environment characteristics on training
effectiveness: the evidence from skill certification system for automotive
industry in Thailand. The researchers wanted to confirm the influence of the
individual and work environment characteristic on training outcomes. This
research was selected 228 participants who attended multiple levels and study
various training course for instance electrical maintenance, metal press
work/stamping, machining and etc. The
result showed that high
social support makes trainees learned successfully because they experienced
more behavioral change on the real work after training.

Meanwhile, one research in Indian manufaturing sector which conducted by Manju and Suresh (2013)
at 30 large and medium scale industrial units operating in Mysore district,
Kartanaka state studied factors (pre-training motivation, self-efficacy,
opportunity for skill and supervisory support) influencing transfer of
training. Sample size of 706 workers were selected and a non-probability
sampling technique which is convenience sampling method was used by the
researchers. The findings stated that self-efficacy and
pre-training motivation significantly presumed transfer of training and
supervisory support not significantly related to transfer of training. The
researchers mentioned that “the results suggest that mere providing of training
cannot ensure transfer of training unless workers are provided with the
opportunity for skill utilization to apply the learned skills at workplace”.

One of research
conducted by Springs (2007) at Air Force Fundamentals of Acquisition Management
(AFFAM) also studied about the impact of work environment on training transfer
with 134 sample size. Seven variables of work environment characteristics were
used in this study which are top management, supervisor support, peer support,
organization learning culture, opportunity to perform, task difficulty and task
constrains. The result showed all of variable were significant related with
transfer of training tested by using multiple regression model. There are two
proposed hypotheses have been supported strongly as a predictor of perceived
training transfer which were supervisor support and peer support.

            In Malaysian context, one of
research had been found which was conducted by Bhatti et al., (2013) at
Malaysian banking sector. There were 1000 questionnaire distributed and 528
completely returned but only 503 remained valid to analysis the data. Employees
of 11 Malaysian Bank randomly selected from bank branches located in Klang
Valley as the sample. The research were focused on the important of selected
environmental, situational and individual factors in the training transfer
process. The results showed supervisor support positively influences transfer
motivation and indirectly influence the training transfer which means that
transfer motivation as mediating role between social support and training


Table 1: Previous
Studies Examining Same Variables




Sample size


and Chemsripong (2014)


manufacturing firm


support was not significantly related to transfer of training

Takahashi and Techakanont (2013)


Automotive Sector


Social support was
significantly related to transfer of training

and Suresh (2013)


30 Industrial Units


support was not significantly related to transfer of training



Air Force
Fundamentals of Acquisition
Management (AFFAM)


Supervisor support
and peer support was significantly related to transfer of training

et al., (2013)


Malaysian Banking Sector


Supervisor support positively influences transfer motivation and
indirectly influence the training transfer


It can be said that, the most factors that influencing transfer of
training are supervisor support and peer support based on empirical study in
Malaysia and outside Malaysia. According to Grossman and Salas (2011), the most
important factor of the transfer climate within the organizational level of work
environment is social support. It is
also supported by Holton et al. (2003, as cited in Imran et al., 2015), which
mentioned that “support provided by the organizational environment has been
found to be main antecedent of transfer of training” (p. 204). A part from
that, other factor also important and significantly related to transfer of
training. Based on Barnard (2005), employees who have had the opportunity to
provide input into training decision were more likely to see the training as
relevant to their jobs. In addition, the research conducted by Springs (2007)
managed to gather 211 surveys that comments on opportunity to perform and one
of it was “I am in ops so I really don’t use much of the thing I learned in the