2.0 as Malay salad. It can be explained

 

2.0
 Introduction

     In Malaysia, ulams are well known as an
important part of meal which usually been consumed daily with the rice by the
Malay people. Ulam also known as Malay salad. It can be explained as any plant
part like shoot,stem,seed,leaves,fruits or flowers which can be eaten boiled or
raw.

     The
ulam is known to have many  benefits to
those who consume it.  As ulam can be
eaten raw, the content of the minerals and vitamins for example the calcium
(Ca), Phosphorus (P), Sodium(Na), Iron (Fe) and Potassium (K) are very high
compared to the cooked vegetables.The ulam is also contain a phytochemicals
such as phenolics and flavonoid which is a good source of antioxidant (Andriana C. Kaliora, 2015).

      Ulam
also provides fiber which is needed by the human digestive system.In Malaysia,
more that 120 types of plant are consume as ulam which comes from various of
plants family.Those plants are usually comes from various type of  plants like shrub, seasonal plants or herbs.
Ulam also can be categorised into four types which is  the popular ulam, less-popular ulam, the
traditional ulam and also the non-traditional ulam.

       The
popular ulam are the ulam that easy to be found and can be easily consume.
Example for  for the popular ulam is the Indian
pennywort(Centella asiatica) and winged bean               ( Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)
. The less-popular ulam are the ulam which are hardly found  and lee consume by people for example the
roselle leaves (Hibiscus sabdariffa).

     The
traditional ulam  are the ulam which is
traditionally been cunsumed by the Malay generations for a long time and it
grows widely in villages or forests while the non-traditional ulam are the ulam
which are not from the origin for example the cucumbers,cabbages and carrots.

     Many
studies have been conducted on the antioxidant content  of salads ( ulam).  The study shows that the high content of
antioxidant brings many benefits for human health. The antioxidant content in
vegetables can help in fight against cancer, inflammation and also other
diseases ( (Farooq Anwar, 2010).

    
Different assays are used to test the antioxidant activity of the ulam
were conducted using the different solvent. The previous study have shown that
the extraction process to test the antioxidant activity using aqueous solvent
(80% methanol) is more efficient compared to the pure solvent (100%
methanol).  This is due to the high
ability of aqueous solvent to extract maximum amount of antioxidant component
compared to the  pure solvent (Farooq Anwar, 2010).

 

 

 

2.0 Literature review

2.1 Morphology of ulam

2.1.1 Nangka( Artocarpus heterophyllus)

    Nangka
which is also known as a jackfruit is a species from the family of Moraceae. This
jackfruit is classified as a large tropical tree which  is natives to 
South India  (Kexue Zhua, 2016). The Artocarpus
heterophyllus is very well suited to the tropical lowlands. It is usually
cultivated at low and medium altitudes.Artocarpus heterophyllus are
cultivated in most of the tropical countries.This jackfruit also can be found
in India to the Malay country.It is known as the largest borne fruit. This
fruit  can reach as much as 35kg (80lb)
in weight, 90cm (35in) in lenght and 50cm (20in) in diameter. Its tree usually
grows and can reach up to 8 to 15 meters.

    The
nangka leaves are usually leathery and the leaves are arrange alternately.It
also have a elliptic-oblong to obovate in shape. It has two sepals and has
numerous seeds. The young fruit of the Artocarpus heterophyllus is also
a vegetables. The jackfruit is proven from the previous study that the pulp of
the jackfruit contain high value of carotenoid that is very important for human
health (G. Ruiz-Montañez a, 2014).

    The
colour of the pulp is yellow,tastes sweet and  have aromatic scent. This jackfruit are rich
in vitamin C , can be eaten fresh, cooked or preserved. The pulp and seeds of
the jackfruit contain a cooling effects. It is also have been used as a
pectorial and also a tonic. Besides, the jackfruit also have a antibacterial
flavones (M.R. Khan*, 2003).

 

 

 

2.1.2 Peria pantai (Colubrina asiatica)

Colubrina asiatica is a shrub from the family
Rhamnaceae. This plant is natives from the  
eastern Africa  to India,southeast
Asia,tropical Australia and the pacific islands. The C.asiatica have a
simple,alternate,glossy ovate and acuminate leaves which is 3.7cm-13.7cm
(1.5-5.4in) long. Several of them has prominent veins. The leaf margins of the C.asiatica
are wavy. It has a small flower, greenish in colour and it bloom in clusters in
leaf axils. The C.asiatica fruits are 1.3cm(0.5in) and has a berry-like
structure with small,gray seeds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.1.3 Murunggai leaf ( Moringa oleifera)

     The Moringa
oleifera is the plant species from the family Moringaceae. This plant  is natives to the Himalayan region. The Moringa
oleifera are widely cultivated in tropical and also subtropical region. The
young leaves and seed pods are widely used as vegetables. This plant also
popular used in a herbal medicine. The Moringa oleifera is a
fast-growing plant. It is a deciduous tree, where this plant can reach up
to10-12m. The young shoots of the Moringa oleifera has a
greenish-white  in colour. It has a
fragrant –smell flower.

     The flower if the Moringa oleifera is a
bisexual. It has a yellowish-white petals. The petals are thinly veined and
unequal. This plant begin to flowering in six months period after the planting
time. The fruit of the Moringa oleifera is hanging over,has a
three-sided brown capsule. The seeds of the Moringa oleifera are
dispersed by the wind and water. The seeds have three wings which is the
advantage for it to easily dispersed by the wind.

     Moringa oleifera are very widely used
in the traditional medicine. The Moringa oleifera is known to
improve the nutrition in the body (Leone et al 2008) . This plant also known to
have a very effective in anti-septic effect and also detergent properties.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.2 Antioxidant assays

2.2.1 
Free Radical Scavenging activity

    The
free radical scavenging activity is one of the antioxidant test method using
the 2,2-Diphenyl-picryldydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The DPPH assay  is widely used in antioxidant studies because
of its characteristics which is very sensitive with a simple method. The DPPH
is very sensitive to the light. The preparation of the DPPH solution must be
away from the light sources. The DPPH is prepared in the dark surrounding.

     The
Schott laboratory bottle containing the DPPH solution must be wrap with the
aluminium foil to avoid it expose to the light sources. DPPH is the organic
nitrogen radicals which acts in receiving the hydrogen atom from the
antioxidant.

 

3.0 Discussion

     The
free radical scavenging activity of three types of ulam used (Artocarpus
heterophyllus, Colubrina asiatica and Moringa oleifera) was
conducted and was determined at 515nm. The results of the free radical
scavenging activity will be determined base on the value of DPPH test ( IC50
value).

     The
free radical scavenging activity was determined by using the Thermo Scientific
Multiskan Spectrum.The 96-well plate, each contain the different types of ulam
used were added with DPPH solution to test for free radical scavenging
activity.The high value of free radical scavenging activity will determined the
high antioxidant content of ulam type. High antioxidant content in certain type
of ulam means that ulam is the best among others.

     In
this experiment conducted, we used the distilled water,50% methanol and ethanol
and also 100% methanol and ethanol as a solvent. According to the previous
study, the free radical scavenging activity test will results in the high value
in less pure solvent than the pure solvent. The previous study shown that the
free radical scavenging activity value in 80% methanol used has a high value
compare to the pure methanol used. It is because the varied in polarity of the
solvent used. The aqueous solvent has the ability to extract maximum amount of
antioxidant component compare to the 
pure solvent (Farooq Anwar, 2010).

        For the Total phenolic content (TPC) the
same step were used as in the free radical scavenging activity. Based oh the
previous study, the TPC result also shown the same as the free radical
scavenging activity. The TPC content high in aqueous solvent than the pure
solvent used (M. Amzad Hossain *, 2015).

     The
TPC typically will measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The TPC result
can be calculated using the formula of C (GAE) = c x V/M where we calculate the
amount of the gallic acid content.

    The
next test is the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The FRAP absorbance
value were tested at 593nm.The FRAP assay is also an assay which test the
antioxidant power or capacity. The FRAP assay is very famous one because it is
a very simple method and fast result. The FRAP value of the ulam tested will
determine the antioxidant ability of that ulam.From the experiment conducted,
the ulam that have the high value of the FRAP is known to have a good
antioxidant ability compare to the other ulam.

       
Next is the metal chelating (MC) test. The metal chelating in one type
of the secondary antioxidant.The chelation process is the process where the
toxic heavy metals are being remove from the body (Pachauri, 2010). The  MC is determined where the high value of MC
proves that it has a high antioxidant ability. The ulam with the high MC are
known the best at chelating process compared to other ulam.

 

4.0 Conclusion

     As
the ulam, or salad are mostly being consume raw, it contain a high antioxidant
property compared to the vegetables that were cooked. The ulam that have a high
free radical scavenging activity value is important as it can give many
benefits to the human health.

     The
ulam that have a high value of the free radical scavenging activity is prove to
have a good antioxidant activity compared to the ulam with low free radical
scavenging activity value. As ulam can be eaten raw, the content of the
minerals and vitamins for example the calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Sodium(Na),
Iron (Fe) and Potassium (K) are very high compared to the cooked vegetables.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.0 References

Farooq Anwar, *. 1.
(2010). Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley
seeds(Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil. Pakistan:
1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture,
Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan.2Department of Chemistry, Government College
University. Faisalabad-38000, Pakistan.3Department of Chemistry, University of
Sargodha, Sargodha-40100, Pakistan.

G. Ruiz-Montañez a,
A. B.-H.-S.-S.-C.-O.-S. (2014). Screening antimutagenic and antiproliferative
properties of extracts isolated from Jackfruit pulp ( Artocarpus heterophyllus
Lam). Food Chemistry.

Kexue Zhua, Y. Z.
(2016). Physicochemical properties and in vitro antioxidant activities
ofpolysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. pulp. Carbohydrate
Polymers.

M. Amzad Hossain *,
M. D. (2015). A study on the total phenols content and antioxidant activity of
essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic plant Merremia
borneensis. Arabian Journal of Chemistry.

M.R. Khan*, A. O.
(2003). Antibacterial activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Fitoterapia 74
(2003) 501–505.

Pachauri, S. J.
(2010). Chelation in Metal Intoxication. International Journal of
Environmental Research and Public Health, 2-4.

 

Andriana C.
Kaliora, C. B. (2015). Nutritional evaluation and functional properties of
traditional composite salad dishes. LWT – Food Science and Technology.