1.2 selecting the executives, relationship between levels of

1.2       Summary
of Methods in Explaining Government Image

 There are several
methods used in both field of academia and practice to explain the government
image. Among these explanation methods are the systems of governance, methods
of selecting the executives, relationship between levels of government, media
relation, trust, nation-branding and consonance. Systems of governance relate
to “the processes of interactions and decision-making among the actors involved
in a collective problem that lead to the creation, reinforcement, or
reproduction of social norms and institutions” (Hufty, 2011). A variety of
entities (known generically as governing bodies) can govern. The most formal is
a government, a body whose sole responsibility and authority is to make binding
decisions in a given geopolitical system such as state by establishing laws.

discussing governance in particular nation or state, the quality of governance
within is often compared to standards set by global bodies such as United
Nations, continental and regional bodies. Actually, good governance relates to
consistent management, cohesive policies, guidance, processes and right
decisions for a given area of responsibility, and proper oversight and
accountability. “Good governance” implies that mechanisms function in a way
that allows the executive to respect the rights and interest of the people in
spirit of democracy. This method has become a globally accepted standard in
determining and explaining government image of a country. Anything short of
these measures places the government image of that country in bad light. Comparatively,
the advantages of using system of nation’s governance to determine government
image are that, it follows the global standards which are well defined by the international
community with no distinctions irrespective of believe system, values and
social orientations of a particular country. Disadvantage of using this method
used in determining government image is that, all the determinants are
subjective to varied interpretations depending on ideological differences.   

of selecting executives globally comes with competition (healthy and
unhealthy), tensions, acrimonies and invitation to struggle. In any case,
method of selecting nation’s executives varies from place to place. Even in the
monarchy system, tensions and struggles and acrimonies are not rule out. This
method is used globally to assess government image. Depending on the level of
tension, acrimonies, and struggle in selecting it is either considered fair or
otherwise. The government image is dented when all the elements making the
process healthy and fair are abused and not followed. The distinction between
this method and others are that method of selecting executives bother on human
right issues, and far reaching implication on human lives and trade. The
advantage of using method of selecting executives is it engages global
attention and concern. Disadvantage of this method is that it complex to
interpret and soon the new executives are selected different picture can be
portrayed to international community.   

between levels of government has to do with separation of powers and
decentralization. This method used to explain government image varies from one
political administration to another. However, almost all political
administrations have executive, judicial and legislative. The level of autonomy
and independence to a very large extent describe the healthy or insanitary
nature of government image. The difference between this method and others is
that it affords the any assessor an opportunity to evaluate the level of
totalitarianism as well as prevailing rule of law. The advantage of
relationship between levels of government is mainly due to its ability to
determine the level of dictatorship of executive in relation to decision
making. The disadvantage of the method is that it subjects to ideological
interpretations and governance approach.  

respect to media relation, trust, nation-branding and consonance in marketing,
the difference is that their interpretations are more objective than
ideological subjectivity. Their analytical interpretations in the field of
marketing can be done using either qualitatively or quantitative approach. The
disadvantage of the method is its costs in collecting enough data from the mass
respondents that will reflect the generality of the outcome. In this study,
media relation, trust, nation-branding and consonance were chosen in determining
the government image in relation to economic performance for the following
reasons, to appraise:

how government image is promoted by media

how the trust of business community
impact on government image,

how the nation branding projects the
government image, and

how the government image is elevated by


1.3       Study

objectives of the research include, to:

Determine the significant statistical
influence government image has on the nation’s economic performance.

Find out the extent government image
influences the nation’s economic performance.

Identify the factor elements that enhances
government image in relation to marketing strategy.

Make recommendations as how these
government image variables could be improved to enhance economic performance.


1.4       Area of Focus

of countries globally are usually viewed from the perspective of economics
without due consideration to other subjects interpretations. Marketing is
believed to be a core of all business activities including governance of nations
that can be used to determine and interpret nation’s economic performance.
Nation branding attempts to reduce the identity-image gap by identifying
prejudices and misperceptions as well as enabling it to dismantle and oppose
the negative force that could: (1) hold back the nation’s economic development
(2) damage the nation’s standing in the world community. The significance of
this study is to establish a link from marketing perspective between image of
government and economic performance. The outcome of the results is expected to
highlights the elements of government image that significantly influence the
economic performance of the country. Hence, the suggested recommendations are
expected to be used by developing countries, particularly those in Sub-Africa
who share similar characteristics to that of Ghana. It is to add facts and
information to existing academic literature useful for referencing.


1.5       Delimitations

the nation Ghana has experienced diverse forms governance since its independence
then it becomes a perfect case for this study. The study will look at economic
performance of Ghana vis-à-vis the governance regimes since its independence to
establish a trend. In this study economic performance will be defined in terms
of growth domestic product (GDP/capita) while government image is described in
terms of factors such as media relations, trust, nation branding and


      Chapter Disposition

research was organized into six main chapters. Chapter One, Introduction,
comprise of background to the study, summary of methods in explaining
government image, study objectives, areas of focus, delimitations, and chapter
disposition. Chapter Two, Literature Review, consist of theoretical review,
empirical review, and summary of the chapter. Chapter three presents Ghana’s economic performance and
political governance. Chapter four,
Research Methodology, captures research design, data collection approach, data
collection ethics and method of data analysis. Chapter five, data presentation,
results and discussion presents the processed data, analyses and discussions.
Chapter six, conclusion and recommendation, presents summary of the findings,
conclusion based on the research questions, limitations of the study and


1.7       Creative Opinion

due to her different political regimes and governments since its independence
the economic performance has gone through various twists and turns. The country
has experienced both military and multi-party regimes. In each of the case, its
economic performance has gone through some form of changes, some impressive
performance, others dreadful. During the military regimes in the 1960s, 1970s,
1980s and 1990s, the business communities were the worst sufferers of the blunt
of dictatorships, autocracies, repressions and despotisms tendencies. At some
stage in these eras, local businesses who could not withstood the vagaries of
the economy collapsed while others, particularly, multinationals either
relocated to the safer destinations or reduced their investments. In all these
regime periods, the image of governments appeared shoddier and woefully affected
the economic performance of the country even notwithstanding some success
chucked by some of them. Examining the economic performance of the country, it shows
evidently that gross domestic products (GDP/capita), the measure of economic
performance, during these military regimes proved more terrible depiction than
democratic dispensations.

even under the democratic dispensations, at some periods of times the economic
performance dips as result of lack of investments in the economy and relocation
of businesses which were purportedly on the account of governments’ image. As
ideologies and policies in politics cannot be ruled out, some political parties
in the reins of power attracts more foreign direct investments (FDIs) and
businesses than the others. Political parties that are branded business
friendly are bound to attract more FDIs and businesses and hence grow the
economy in more positive way.

this rendition, it clear that there is a link between the economic performance
and the image of government. As under certain regimes, the economic performance
of the country blossom while also within certain regimes it becomes worst-off.
The image of government is very critical to every nation’s economic performance
because in marketing, national branding which is almost synonymous to
government image is all that the investors both local and foreigners need to
promote businesses to enhance economic growth. Hence, this study seek to analyze
the influence government image has on nation’s economic performance, and the extent
of the influence. Due to number of key stakeholders involve in determining the
government’s image and economic performance are numerous, this study
concentrates mainly on business entities whose outputs and performances have
direct benefits or otherwise on both the households and the nation.